Over the last three decades, continued expatriate population growth across the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Qatar has created an unprecedented demand for private education. However, a combination of a lack of affordable private education options, monopolistic behaviors of private education providers, and a mix of government regulations have resulted in serious issues surrounding access and quality. This policy paper presents the nature and implications of private school provision for access and equity in K-12 education in the UAE and Qatar. We find that, across the populations of these countries, there are considerable socioeconomic differences that determine who has access to private schooling. As a result of increasing growth in the for-profit private education sector in both countries, poorer families are ultimately left less able to access quality education than are their wealthier counterparts. The potential of non-profit schools to create greater equity and accessibility is discussed, and recommendations for policymakers are offered.